Why Do Africans (People of African Descent ) Bleach Their Beautiful Dark Skin,

Perm Their Natural Kinky Hair,


Have “Pointed Nose” Operations?







Africans’ early encounters with Arabs and Europeans were mostly catastrophic; these foreigners colonized and enslaved millions of African people. They deemed African aesthetics as ugly. African contributions to world civilization: medicine, traditional religions, arts, science, fashion, etc were labelled inferior. As a result many Africans today are still trying to deal with the psychological impact of these encounters: “internalized self-hate.”

African men and women bleach their skin, perm their hair and wear fake wigs that don’t look like their natural hair, have “pointed nose” surgeries in order to look like their former oppressors. It is their way of fighting for recognition. Mainstream media both in the Middle East and the Western world promote and feature white or lighter complexioned people.

For example, most of the black people that work for CNN are either light skinned or mixed race. They are regarded as the mouthpiece for all black people. An African (black) person with stereotypically kinky hair, dark skin, broad nose, and thick lips, no matter how intelligent and attractive, are rarely allowed to express themselves and represent blackness. When you watch movies from around the world, dark skinned black people are often cast in subservient roles; they are rarely the “good guy.”

As Steve Biko said, “the most potent weapon of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.” Unfortunately, even though Africans are no longer colonized and physically enslaved, we are still mentally imprisoned. Africans on the continent and in the diaspora have internalized racist ideas about themselves. Dark skinned black children are often bullied or simply ignored because they look “too African,” “too dark” or “their nose are too wide” etc. “Internalization” is constantly reinforced by an anti-dark skin bias in the social world.

In music videos on the continent and in the diaspora be it in Congo (Kofi Olumide), Nigeria ( Kcee, Olu Maintain), Jamaica (Sean Paul) black people with lighter skin are the main characters. Media outlets that are supposed to have wholistic representations of black people such as BET mostly feature mixed race and light skinned blacks who have stereotypically white features. In fact, these media seem to encourage disrespectful remarks about dark skinned black people. For example, a number of black entertainers such as Asap Rocky, Kenya West, Lil Wayne, Ne-yo and Dl Hughley publicly endorsed light skinned supremacy and there was little outcry from the black “community” to their tasteless, self-hating remarks.

What is the Way Forward?

Nuul Kukk ( Black is Beautiful) in Senegal

  • Black people need mental healing. Seek the counsel of your elders and be part of a sister and brotherhood, where you can have honest conversations
  • Promote a wholistic representation of blackness and include dark-skinned black people in every aspect of society, especially in the media
  • There should be a public outcry whenever darker skinned blacks are disrespected
  • Do not buy or play music of self-hating and disrespectful artists
  • Stop reproducing divisive phrases such as: “team light-skin” and “team dark-skin,” or  “you are pretty for a dark skinned girl,”  “you have good hair,” etc.
  • Support anti-bleaching campaigns such as Nuul Kukk (Black is Beautiful) in Senegal https://www.facebook.com/nuulkukkmoovment not only to decolonize our minds but to save lives. Bleaching creams are dangerous they cause illnesses such as  skin cancer and liver damage.
  • Recent research suggests hair perm causes hair loss and fibroid tumors.Start and/or support campaigns in your community against hair perming, skin bleaching and “pointed nose” operations.

Racist portrayal of Africans/ black / people of African descent in US and other parts of the world, past and present (  books, advertisements, movies, etc).




This black doll is currently ( in 2000s) being sold in the US, labeled “lil monkey”


U.S universal picture racist cartoon “scrum me mama with a boogie beat” depicting Africans/blacks as lazy monkeys, that need white people to teach them work ethic


In Ukrainian Africans  depicted in a newspaper as monkeys
Christmas racist tradition in the Netherlands, white people paint their faces black and dress in bright colors ( being Africans/slaves)


Ota Benga ( 1906 ), 24 year old African- Congolese young man that was taken by white people and brought to the US. He was placed in the Bronx “human” zoo, treated as a freak and an animal.


Tintin Au Congo/ Tintin in the Congo by Hergé (aka Georges Prosper Remi) Belgium cartoonist . This book is about Congolese and how they are lazy, stupid, servants etc.


Belgium 1958, a little African/black girl was put into a human zoo and white people are feeding her banana like a monkey.


Examples of Bleached Skinned, Pointed Nose Operation and Fake Hair
South Africa-Mshoza

USA – LaToya Jackson ( before = top, after = below )


Nigeria- Pele Okiemute

Nigerian bleaching expert Pele Okiemute

Jamaica- Vybz kartel


Women in Senegal
Senegal Skin Lightening / Zed Nelson

Woman and her bleached skin

Kenya- Vera Sidika 


Vera Sidika today as a bleached woman

African/Black man in the diaspora 




 Dominican Republic-Sammy Sosa ( Bleached Skin)


African Woman


Nigeria – Governor Alao Akala of Oyo State

Governor Alao Akala of Oyo State

Rwanda, Beatrice Munyenyezi
Beatrice Munyenyezi bleaching her skin

USA-Lil’ Kim


African Woman in the diaspora 


 Virgin Islands/USA –Karrine Steffans ( aka superhead )


Women in SeneGambia 




Nigeria- Royal Family of Bleachers 


Nigerian-Cameroonian, Dencia

Nigerian: Cameroonian %22artist%22 Dencia bleaching story.Nigeria- Tonto Dikeh

Tonto talks about the fact that she bleaches her skin and that she has no “problems with skin bleaching.” She believes if you do not like your skin, you should change it. ( video below)



Trinidad and Tobago/ USA -Nicki Minaj (Onika Tanya Maraj )


African American – Tamar Braxton before and after nose surgery 

Tamar Broxton before and after nose operation

African American- Nene Leakes had nose operation to make it pointed!

NENE-LEAKES-NOSE-JOBWoman of African descent, narrow and pointed nose surgery  :http://www.drkolstad.com/photo-gallery-rhinoplasty.html

Woman of African descent narrow nose operationSide Effects

Skin Peeling


 Skin Cancer and Burn






Stretch Marks


Uneven Skin Tone





Pimples Breakout


Hair loss / Track Alopecia



Additional Information

1.”Study Links Hair Relaxers To Fibroid Tumors and Early Puberty In African American Females”...http://blacklikemoi.com/2012/02/study-links-hair-relaxers-to-fibroid-tumors-and-early-puberty-in-african-american-females/

2. ” Skin Bleaching and Lightening as Psychological Misorientation Mental Disorder”http://www.questia.com/library/1P3-2360188641/commentary-on-skin-bleaching-and-lightening-as-psychological

3. “Skin Bleaching and Global White Supremacy“...http://www.academia.edu/898612/Editorial_Skin_Bleaching_and_Global_White_Supremacy

4.”Mercury in Skin Lightening Cosmetics”…http://mercurypolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/skincreamhgfactsheet_may31_final.pdf

5.”Nigeria’s Booming Skin Bleaching Market”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=illl92AMxTA

6. South African musician Nomasonto Mnisi, talks about her desire to look “white, white.”

Skin Bleaching in Africa

7. “Africa Where Black is Really Not Beautiful”…http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-20444798

8. “Confessions of a Hair Weave Addict.” A story of an African (black) woman who had self-esteem problems linked to her hair and how she dealt with it http://www.huffingtonpost.com/erikka-yancy/hair-weave-addiction_b_3065875.html

9. “Black Women Lightened Skin and Straightened Hair”  http://www.unbiasedtalk.com/living-and-relationships/black-women-lightened-skin-and-straightened-hair/

10. This is where “human hair wigs/weaves” come from. Poor Indians donate their hair to god and the temple priests sell them to brokers. And from poor white Europeans.





11. Unfortunately, black people don’t even have control over their haircare.The African/black haircare industry is dominated by Koreans.Black people spend billions of dollars each year to buy other people’s discarded hair that looks nothing like their real hair.



12.Mr. Vegas sings “Black and Proud” (Nah Bleach)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTNuwV7NFHM

13. Vybz Kartel sings about light skin supremacy and how it gives one access to women, job etc.. “Cake Soap”


14. Kendrick Lamar  explains the importance of casting dark skinned black women in music videos. He took it further by asking for a dark skinned woman to be the lead character in his music video ” Poetic Justice”.

Kendrick Lamar

15. Fela on Skin Bleaching “Yellow Fever”

16. Watch Bill Duke and D. Channsin Berry’s documentary “Dark Girls” It would help you have a better understanding of the plight of dark skinned black people especially women in the US, and it is also applicable to Africa/Black people worldwide.



17. Yellow Fever  a documentary on skin bleaching in Africa

10. This is an example of psychological  violence of white power on African American men and women. Maxwell needs healing.

Maxwell, white power!

Please note: I do not hold copyright to any of the pictures and videos.

63 thoughts on “Why Do Africans (People of African Descent ) Bleach Their Beautiful Dark Skin,

  1. Pingback: Anonymous
      • I need to even tone my skin light or black. I am stage 3 cancer. The chemo or the illness has messed up my skin to dark brown, medium and light. I had beautiful skin before the illness. I’m sick of looking at my 3 tone face and dark palms. It’s like I never wash my hands. So, I buying lighten that will smooth me to one tone. I’m 72 and we all have to make our own choices in life. I am proud to be a black woman, so much that I wish I were two of them. I was beautiful until after my 72nd birthday. Then the illness…. and the ruining of my melanin of my skin. (horrible)

      • @ Mama Ivory,

        I am very sorry to hear about your skin discoloration and the illness you had to fight. I am thankful to the universe for keeping you safe and alive.

        peace be unto you,

        with love,


  2. I found this article to be very educational and so sad for all people who suffer from hate and for all women who must constantly endure pain and suffering in this crazy man’s world. I am what is considered “white” although I am blotchy red most of the time. I think that whether you are as black as the night or as white as stars, you should embrace the beauty of who you are. Your skin, your eyes, your lips, your nose, and your hair, it is your image, own it! Love it! We are the portraits of mankind. I think there is beauty in every color, and being an artist, I love that people come in so many shades, what a bland world we would live in if it were all white, all black, or all brown! For myself I see more beauty when people are true to themselves. I think a lot of people look beautiful when they are in today’s fashion. Yet I think people are breathtaking when they shine with their own light. Why do we as humans constantly dim our our own internal light in order to shine under artificial light? It breaks my heart when I see cultures ripped apart by other people and other societies. It breaks my heart that here in America, woman are constantly hurting themselves, degrading themselves, shaming their selves, erasing themselves, in order to represent what our society tells us we should be. Humans, the ever constant false impressionists, wearing our insecurities like a badge, and our self hatred and ignorance as a shield! If only we could stop and breathe and let things be, for true beauty is only found in nature!

    • Greetings Cuz Joie,

      it was a pleasure writing this piece and I am happy to read that you found it helpful.

      1. I agree with you that folks of all races particularly women are under stressful conditions to fit into a specific standard of beauty, however,

      2. I do believe that minorities particularly African/ Black women are often pressurized to look like white women this results in self doubting and willingness to do all things white inorder to fit in.


  3. Its so true were living in such a false view of the perfect image ‘the norm” white&rich and it feels that black people are trying to live up to it but its pathetic we should see our self to be the norm who the hell can define ”the norm” no-one!. Everyone the best of the best no matter as something as tedious as your colour skin or your image.#find the beauty&not the faults(Y)

    • Greetings,
      it is tough for some folks to find the beauty in themselves especially when all their lives they have being bombarded with non- Black/African images. That is why it is important for parents to introduced their children to positive, affirming images of people that look like them.

  4. Hey! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after reading through some of the post I realized it’s new to
    me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely glad I found it!

  5. I have family member she was close to dark brown then as she gotten older she now light brown close to light skin. Now I was fearful to ask her did she beach her skin knowing I was born light skinned. Had I dated a guy who had a god daughter dark close to black color however she did not like black dolls and cut the hair off and only like white dolls then she loved and played with them. Then is said she wants to be light like me I felted sad. Now I am a mother of four girls and only one of the girls came out kind of light skin however not really. My first daughter is brown and she do not like being dark she try to peal her skin and told me the more she rubble at her skin it get lighter. Even as a brown skin girl, she do not like the sun hope not to get dark she do not want to be dark brown. God bless us all we have a lot to learn and more loves heals. Lord help us all in Jesus name and the black race.

    • Greetings Sister Loretta,

      thank you for stopping by and sharing your experiences. I think the way forward for your daughters is to share with them positive black/ African centered stories, you would be surprise by the transformation. I do believe that we are god and only we can undo the racist ideas that we have internalized. Our healing of course must start by knowing the roots of our problems and then start undoing the damage!

  6. Because they have been taught to hate the skin they’re in by Europeans.

    The Global Color Caste System

    Stockholm Syndrome/ Posttraumatic Enslavement Disorder

    The comments that state above:

    “Christmas racist tradition in the Netherlands, white people paint their faces black and dress in bright colors ( being Africans/slaves).”

    They are really imitating the Moors who were at one time highly respected and honored in Europe and they were not slaves. Read the Golden Age of the Moors, by Professor Ivan Van Sertima. I have more books on the subject for those interested.

    The Golden Age of the Moors

    • Cuz Vince Cushite,

      Njika (thank you ) for stopping by and sharing your thoughts:

      1. yes, you got my point about the global color caste system, I appreciate the additional material you shared,

      2. I disagree that folks are “imitating the Moors…” this is because not many folks are aware of the Moors’ ( Black ) African ruling in Spain and Europe in general etc. In fact it is only recent that the general society is hearing about them because European Historians have intentionally ignored that important element of their history ( for obvious reasons). That said, even the Moors were victims of colorism because many of them had children, married white European women and literally wiped out the black African out of their gene pool with “mixed” children. I understand that some of my Africanist comrades regard them as heros but at the same time in my view they betrayed black Africans.

  7. Thank you for this brilliant and insightful article. I’m an African American woman and every word you wrote, American black authors have also endlessly written across time about Black Americans cravings for lighter skin or just wanting to look like a white man.Thanks to the internet I realize this is not just an American problem. It’s so ironic, I constantly encourage Black people to go online and study the thousands of photo images available that show the tremendous physical beauty of African men and women.Some of which are so stunning they take your breath away. I try to convey just look at them they aren’t light or mixed with a white man genes and look at the ravishing beauty they are blessed with! and to be proud that we descended from such people!

    When I read this blog seeing all these pretty African people altering their appearance to resemble of race of beings who in the past took them through various inhuman and horrific historical stages, it saddened me. I thought colorism was just rampant in the United States. I see it is truly a world wide phenomenon. You don’t know how powerful your article is in the terms of educating and inspiring others to fight to end color bias. You may think that you and others who write along the same theme may be writing in vain. You are not it! is people like you in the past that help me to survive color bias that rages in America. When I was in my teens it was the books and articles by Black psychologists and intellectuals that helped me along. I was put down about my brown skin and naturally curled hair and full African featured nose and mouth. Even now Black people talk about my nose being too wide and I need to have it “clipped”.

    Because I read works by people who like you educate others through their writings when a Black man or woman says something about my nose or brown skin or none straight hair, I laughed because “they” are the stupid ones they can’t see that 400 years of racism in America has them completely brainwashed and with a “beaten down racial self image”. Do you think I’m going to alter my nose and bleach my skin to look like a race people who took my ancestors through the horrors of slavery and Jim Crow? hell no!

    Thank you once again for your gifted writing and advice.

    • Dear sister Rafiah Karam,

      yem yo ( greetings) thank you for stopping by and for sharing your story with us. I am humbled by your words of encouragement.

      You are absolutely right that other black especially African American scholars have written about this topic. Yes, I too was/is inspired and impacted by their works. And it is important for those of us that see the light to hold the hands of those still in the dark caves of self alienation!

      We are in this together and respect for sharing!

      with love,


  8. Thank you for the effort you made to place this articles together and ultimately to inform the African people and people of African descent living in America or any part of the globe. The point to consider is that African need to educate them selves and more to read, read, read. The truth is when you read, you get information and when you use the information it enlightens you to want to be more and do more..

    My contribution here is the divide.. when the divisive tool was introduced, it changed the mind of Africans and people of African descent.. I was just as ignorant and for a while, I used bleaching cream so ignorantly until coming to study in America changed that for me.. I stopped using bleaching cream and buying human hair or wig.. I must confess occassionalley, I use synthetic wig, but that too will ultimately stop once my damaged hair is managed properly.. The divide that I think is corrupting the mind our African people is the introduction of the divisive tool BLACK AND WHITE. If you really look at it, No man is white, and NO man is BLACK. Once you know this, you are healed. If you keep thinking that as an African, you are black, then the concept of error is in your mind, and with a divided mind, how can can you understand the real truth. You have to only see people as different in culture.. which is what is it is.. Africans are not BLACK PEOPLE, but Africans.. any other Africans that are termed white are either Arabs, Europeans or Asian..

    To understand this is key when speaking writing or making references to people in general. This idea of Black has corrupted the mind and it seem difficult for many to change the way they speak or think.. The key is to understand that to be human is to be African, European, Asian or Indian.. there is nothing as Black, there is nothing as WHIte people..

    This is where the power lies to know this is to have the power to look at life know that we are really the same, but only difference is language and culture, and these often change as we progress in life.. Thanks for this website and make adding your power to educate the masses whom unfortunately are still in the dark about who they are as power being.. Although people have the choice to choose, knowledge is key to understanding what power we as Africans or people of African have..

  9. I am a white man who lived most of his childhood in Africa. I loved this website and the information it provided to me, because I truly did not know what my black cousins were experiencing. My cousin is Serbian-Nigerian and presently resides in Belgrade, where he is constantly ignored by the rest of my family, mainly due to fear/unknown/racism, even though …he is fairly light skinned… (cant help the older super-racist generations in Serbia).

    Like one of the pictures showed, white people don’t care if you have lighter skin they will still treat you like an “other”. This is high-school/kindergarten mentality, but still it is real and will not be going away anytime soon.

    Even though it can be argued that it is their choice to bleach their skin, how long until it is acceptable for children to bleach/tan their skin just to be accepted. I can only see this becoming a larger problem, not only for black people, but eventually every little melanin spectrum will be modified to “fit” the norms.

    From all those pictures presented up above, every one, male and female, looked radiant and truly beautiful in their own skin given to them by their mothers and fathers.

    I hope the message this website is trying to portray grows in strength, for all our benefits.

  10. i was just crying after seeing this page , because this is our own destruction .. black is more than this it’s hurting so bad to those thing .i just cant stop crying because how to they pretend to be black again and bleaching skin . i hope people will open them eyes soon . Black people re beautiful we don’t need to do all of those thhing .

    • Dear Nao,

      thank you for stopping by and for sharing your thoughts about the piece. It is my libation that we collectively build our children’s self-esteem that way they do not fall for self destruction all in the name of wanting to belong.

      bless up!

  11. Sis, i’m a dark-skinned, Ghanaian woman. i have aunties who tell me how beautiful i am. however, they bleach! they are lightening their skin and lightening their children’s skin. yet, they find me to be beautiful? how can you bleach yourself and then tell another person who is dark that they are beautiful? i don’t take the compliment. i just say thank you and laugh inside. my cousins are bleaching. (one is 15 years, one is 21, and the SON who is also 15 years is bleaching as well). bleaching will always be a part of Africa. Because the mindsets of Africans (those in Africa) will remain, bleaching will also remain. In Ghana, many men say that if you marry a lightskin woman, she is expensive. “obaa k)k)” which is a lightskin woman, is a term used in Ghana for those light or those who are caramel complexion. some Ghanaians are even as caramel/brown like Queen Latifah’s complexion; (this is not considered light skin to many americans). but to most africans, its a desired beauty. Honestly, when i hear strangers come up to me in Wal-mart saying “i just want to tell you that i love your skin. you are one of the most beautiful dark-skin girls i’ve ever seen,” i feel both proud and a bit embarrassed/insulted at the same time. does that mean they are saying that i am beautiful to be dark-skinned and that they cannot believe that such beauty could be on a dark woman? if not, then why couldn’t they have said “you are one of the most beautiful girls i’ve seen.” my interpretation of the compliment is often times not what the person thinks. unfortunately, there are dark-skinned girls who have low self-esteem and who make dark-skinned girls look pitied upon. NOT all dark-skinned girls feel that way. there are several of us who love our complexion, and wouldn’t trade it for the world. Oprah Winfrey had a dark skinned girl crying on her show about how she didn’t feel happy about her skin. Those are the messages that people see. they think that we envy light girls. they think that we hate ourselves. they think that we wish to bleach. and that we wish to have light kids. NO! i wish there were more proud dark girls like Lupita. we need to stop crying on TV as if we are ugly. i’m glad that people are reading your Blog sis. Take care 🙂 ❤ ❤

  12. Thank you so much for this article. I’m on a journey to finding myself and having grown up in Ivory Coast, I never “knew” nor realized I was Black until I came to the United States. This constant pressure backed by the Media of looking White is what had me questioning most of my recent choices. Now , when I see Black women with bleached skin and a full pack of weave, I can’t help but think they look ridiculous. The worst is that I used to be one of them. Am I better than them now that I’m putting things into perspective? No! But I’m glad I’m starting to discover the real me, even if it’s a painful road to take.

    • Dear fam Marie,

      thank you for stopping by. It is never too late to find ourselves and I am grateful, and humbled that you shared your story with us. If you do not mind,I would like to communicate with you on a project that I am currently working on here is my email address: yldabale@gmail.com.

      with love,


  13. I stumbled across this blog on accident via Google. But, boy am I glad that I did! A lot of information about stuff that has been on my mind! Very glad that you did this article. More people should see it.

  14. I think blacks are ingrate. God making us black doesn’t mean we are different from other human creature. God’s name be praise for making a black man

  15. Light skin people are not black. Real blacks are dark to brown skin with wooly hair. So called light skin blacks are biracial/mixed race group of people. If we stop accepting mixed/biracial light skin people, our people will stop bleaching.

    Dark skin value is down because we accept anyone to be black and they in turn look down on us. Pig skin is a curse but they promote it like is blessing

  16. The reason why black value is low is because we accept anybody to be black nowadays. Chine black mix baby is considered black. WHite black mix is also considered black. So called light skin blacks are mixed race people. The reason why africans/black people are bleaching is because we refused to define ourselves. We accept mixed race people as black. We must seperate mixed race/biracials/so called light skin blacks from us real blacks. THey are not our people. The bleachers too will be conisdered mixed race people. we dont need them either

    Real blacks are dark/brown skin with wooly hair.

  17. Because of one of these stupid photos people will think because my knees are black and my skin is light that i lightened my skin
    which i do not do. You can’t go by photos a lot mixed multi racials have darker knees and light skin. I have wavy hair that goes straight on A hot desert day people assume i use a relaxed. My face is lighter than my arms my hair is brown my features are African American mostly so people think dye my hair or lighten my face i do not do either

  18. The one drop rule was banned long time ago. If you dont have parents who have african traitis (brown to dark skin with wooly hair) you are not black.

    Obama Beyonce rehinna chris brown Ramsey nouah majid michel van vicker nadia buari are not black. We should not even promote them in our movies.

  19. Perhaps the same reason tha white people risk skin cancer to tan/darken their skin, inject their mouths for fuller lips though more like “trout pout”, insert “prosthetics” into their flat butts. Or chinese people trying to change their face shapes & noses. Or people just injecting Botox and other crap into their faces to change their looks. Really, stop always trying to single out black people for ridicule. The ridiculous exists in every race. God created us all no one race is better looking than the next, all differences are man proclaimed so shut up, live and let live!!!!

  20. Lets pretend that we do not know….

    That skin bleaching occurs as a result of light-skinned privilege and second class treatment of the dark-skinned.

    “Cause and effect”. It is not rocket science.

    Wake up and look around you as you seem oblivious to the facts.

    If you constantly attack their self-esteem acting in a manner which implies that their skin or hair is not good enough, they will seek to change it. They are only human. They are not to blame.

  21. This white supremacy at its finest people don’t understand that white supremacy is a global phenomenon! Black people keep accepting mixed race people as black! Light skinned people with nappy hair are black they are not mixed with Caucasian, the only people to be mixed with Caucasian are those that are of a mixed heritage. Mixed race people are not black! But black people are the ones to blame for accepting these mixed bloods as black and wanting to have half black children.

  22. I’m happy I stumbled upon this. I have loads of insecurity about my dark skin and all my life I’ve been given the impression that i would look better with a smaller nose and lighter skin and I always relaxed my hair until recently when I read an article about the negative effects. This article has helped me on my journey to self love and now I will aim for even and healthy skin (I have a lot of skin damage due to eczema ) as opposed to “lighter” skin.

    I understand some may not want to befriend or date me because of my African features but I’m learning to realize there’s no point in changing for a society that doesn’t want to change itself. #blackisbeautiful

    Thank you for writing this article

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s